By The Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers Association (ARMA)

Editor’s Note: The Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers Association (ARMA) has prepared many technical reports to aid roofers in the proper installation of various asphalt roofing systems. ARMA [] has granted permission to publish this report for the benefit of roofers.

Ponding water is defined as water, which remains on a roof 48 hours or longer. It may result from rain, melting snow/ice or runoff from rooftop equipment. The Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers Association is joined by many reputable organizations, such as the National Roofing Contractors Association, the Midwest Roofing Contractors Association, the American Institute of Architects, and the International Institute of Building Enclosure Consultants in recommending that roof designs provide adequate slope (usually min. ¼” per foot) to ensure that the roof drains freely throughout the life of the building, thereby lessening the potential adverse effects of ponding water.

If not addressed, ponding water may result in significant consequences including but not limited to:


As water accumulates in ponding areas, the load on the roof increases, and may result in deck deflection. The potential for deck deflection increases with the capacity of the area to hold water thereby increasing the potential risk to the structural integrity of the deck.

Ice Damage:

Ice formations develop and move constantly with changes in temperature. This movement may “scrub” the roof membrane to an extent that physical damage to the membrane may occur.

Biological Growth:

When water stands for long periods of time, it promotes biological growth, such as algae and vegetation. Damage to the roof membrane may occur from chemical and physical attack from the bio-growth as well as the expansion and contraction of the bio-growth during wet and dry cycles. Additionally, vegetation and other debris may clog drains and cause additional ponding.

Dirt/Debris Accumulation:

Accumulation of dirt and debris may support biological growth. If a ponding area dries, the accumulated dirt and debris may contract during dehydration (resulting possibly in “alligator cracking”) and pull at the surface of the membrane.

Water Infiltration:

If roof membrane integrity is compromised, the risk of water infiltration into the building and subsequent interior damage is amplified.

Best practices to avoid ponding water are as follows:

A roof’s structural frame or deck should be sloped, and drainage components such as roof drains and scuppers should be included.

Regular maintenance to ensure drains remain unobstructed so that ponding water does not occur due to clogged drainage systems.

If a deck does not provide the necessary slope to drain, a tapered insulation system may be used to create positive roof drainage.

Crickets installed upslope of rooftop equipment and saddles positioned along a low-point between drains, may help minimize localized ponding in conjunction with a tapered insulation system.

Rooftop HVAC condensate lines should be connected to proper drains to prevent condensate from draining onto the roof.

If ponding water does occur, efforts should be taken to eliminate or reduce the accumulation and persistence of water on the roof surface. Failing to address ponding water may shorten the effective life of the roof membrane system.

*DISCLAIMER OF LIABILITY: This document was prepared by the Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers Association and is disseminated for informational purposes only. Nothing contained herein is intended to revoke or change the requirements or specifications of the individual roofing material manufacturers or local, state and federal building officials that have jurisdiction in your area. Any question, or inquiry, as to the requirements or specifications of a manufacturer, should be directed to the roofing manufacturer concerned. THE USER IS RESPONSIBLE FOR ASSURING COMPLIANCE WITH ALL APPLICABLE LAWS AND REGULATIONS.

Nothing contained herein shall be interpreted as a warranty by ARMA, either express or implied, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose or non-infringement. IN NO EVENT SHALL ARMA BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER, including special, indirect, consequential or incidental damages or damages for loss of profits, revenue, use or data, whether claimed in contract, tort or otherwise. Where exclusion of implied warranties is not allowed, ARMA’s liability shall be limited to the minimum scope and period permitted by law.